Scaled W-Band Phased Array Module Design and Integration for Real-Time 3D Radar Imaging

This workshop will describe the motivation, challenges, and solutions for the implementation of Si-based W-band phased arrays achieving 100% fill factor. An organic-based multi-layered phased-array antenna package operating at 94GHz is described. The package incorporates 64 dual-polarized antenna elements and also integrates 10GHz power splitters/combiners. Direct antenna probing measurements on a fabricated package and full-wave electromagnetic (EM) simulation of the complete design show over 8GHz bandwidth and 2dBi gain at 94GHz. A scaling and assembly process consists of attaching the package with one die that comprises four joint IC is used to improve manufacturability. Using this antenna array package, compact phased array transmitter (TX) and receiver (RX) modules operating at 94GHz are presented and demonstrated in a 3D radar imaging system. Each TX and RX IC integrates beam-forming, frequency conversion, LO generation, and digital control functions. The modules have beam steering capabilities in both azimuth and elevation over a range of ±32 degrees. A radar imaging system is implemented comprising an evaluation board with one TX module and one RX module, FMCW signal generation and acquisition components, and an FPGA for fast beam steering control. The system can steer TX and RX beams to a given direction and perform a radar measurement in that direction in less than 100us, enabling 3D imaging in real time. An outlook for future W-band packaging and system integration challenges and research directions is provided.