Heterogeneous Integration for High Frequency RF Applications

Heterogeneous integration (HI) has become a key technology development and production effort in the past few years for applications to 5G, 6G in the commercial world and W-band and in general >100GHz applications in space and defense. Several factors need to be considered to select a suitable approach, including active semiconductor technologies, materials for interposers, the HI method and interface, cost, yield, and last but not least the overall reliability of the integration.