Cryogenic Detectors and Electronics for Particle Physics

Research tasks that use bolometric, scintillating or semiconductor high impedance detectors, such as those experiments devoted to the study of dark matter and the neutrino mass, as well as astrophysics, work at deep cryogenic temperatures and demand ultra-low noise amplifiers. The signal to noise ratio increases by minimizing both the heat injection and the input stray capacitance, which leads to locate the front-end electronics at cryogenic temperatures, as near as possible to the detector. Other sensors, such as the TES and MKID coupled with RF-SQUID, allow multiple channels multiplexing in order to reduce the number of wires and share expensive resources. These techniques need high bandwidth amplifiers operating at deep cryogenic temperatures up to radio-frequencies. A newly emerged class of below-100K cryogenic detectors uses SiPM photo sensors coupled to fast cryogenic preamplifiers. The state-of-the-art of such technologies and circuit topologies will be addressed.