Workshops and Technical Lectures
The introduction of IoT (Internet of things) and cloud computing has accelerated the demand for higher bandwidth and higher capacity networks. Coherent detection, where the phase information of the optical carrier provides higher signal-to-noise ratios, has gained an ever-increasing momentum. Today coherent communication dominates long-haul networks operating with data rates beyond 400 Gbps per wavelength. Thanks to advancements in digital signal processing that leverage ultra-low power implementations in deep submicron technologies (i.e. 7nm), the cost and power of coherent transponders are becoming competitive for short reach networks as well (inter and intra-data centers). Reducing the cost and enhancing the overall performance of such networks are only achievable through highly integrated solutions that encompass complex digital signal processing algorithms, state-of-the-art transimpedance amplifiers and modulator drivers, and integrated silicon photonics. The co-design and co-optimization become the key factor in further power and performance scaling of coherent transponders. Different parts of optical communication systems have the been subject of prior workshops at RFIC. This workshop, however, brings together a multidisciplinary team of experts to inform the audience of various technology advancements in all key components that make up an integrated optical communication system. Co-design, co-optimization, and hybrid integration will be the theme and focus of this workshop and are addressed by several speakers from different backgrounds. The following talks are planned for this workshop: (1) Introduction to the Workshop: (Co-organizers) 15-minutes Brief overview of coherent and direct detection in optical communication systems. Market Forces and Network Evolution: (Martin Zirngibl Chief Technologist at II-VI-Confirmed) 40-minutes • Coherent scaling trends from long-haul to data centers • Direct or coherent detection for short reach 800G and beyond • How to use technologies that have been used for long-haul for short-reach applications • Co-packaging optics and processors • Q&A 5-minutes (2) Integrated Optics: (Chris Doerr, VP of Engineering Advanced Development, Acacia- Confirmed) 40-minutes • State-of-the-art SiPh transceivers for 100Gbaud and beyond: Performance, Hybrid Integration, and Packaging • Laser requirements and integration challenges • Q&A 5-minutes (3) mm-Wave ASICs: (Prof. Jim. Buckwalter- University of Santa Barbara-Confirmed) 40-minutes • Energy-efficient Coherent Optical Transceivers using Silicon Photonic and Si CMOS/SiGe BiCMOS RFICs • Q&A 5-minutes (4) ADCs and DACs for coherent transmission beyond 400G (Ian Dedic - Acacia-Confirmed) 40-minutes • architecture and challenges • performance scaling • opto-electronic co-design • Q&A 5-minutes (5) Digital Signal Processing: (Prof. Joseph M. Kahn- Stanford-Confirmed) 40-minutes • How coherent detection and digital signal processing (DSP) revolutionized long-haul systems • DSP-based compensation of dispersion, polarization effects, component limitations, and laser phase noise • Digital vs. analog signal processing for emerging coherent intra- and inter-data center systems • Q&A 5-minutes (6) Panel Discussion 40-minutes. Address more debatable topics. Allow all the speakers and audience to participate in the discussion and tackle the problem from different angles. Panel is moderated by co-organizers.
To meet an order-of-magnitude increase in data traffic demand on mobile networks, 5G networks will be key to support this growth. 5G massive multiple-input, multiple-output (MIMO) technology will deliver high data rates to many users, helping to increase capacity. It will support real-time multimedia services and reduce energy consumption by targeting signals to individual users utilizing digital beamforming. Also, element-level digital beamforming that supports emerging multi-beam communications and directional sensing at mm-wave frequency range, will expand the use of mm-wave phased-arrays and make them broadly applicable across Department of Defense (DoD) systems. The focus of this workshop is to present state-of-the-art radio circuits and systems exploiting MIMO and digital beamforming at sub-6GHz and mm-wave bands for both civilian 5G NR and defense applications.
Presently, power amplifiers do not fulfill all of the requirements of linearity, energy efficiency, and bandwidth that are required for new radio and mm-wave operation for 5G and future communications, particularly for the user equipment. New techniques are required in the design of ultra-high linearity power amplifiers, or through improved linearization, efficiency enhancement and bandwidth extension techniques to dramatically improve the performance to open the full potential of future communications systems. It is noted that all aspects of new radio and mm-wave PA design become more challenging when placed into arrays with non-negligible element-to-element coupling. This workshop will explore power amplifier designs in the mm-wave spectrum, as well as linearization techniques (digital pre-distortion (DPD), outphasing, envelope tracking, etc.) and efficiency enhancement (load-modulation, supply modulation, etc.), in both user equipment and base stations.
Recent development of machine learning and AI techniques have extended the capability of conventional RF and mm-wave systems beyond their classical limits to solve unconventional problems. This workshop will showcase intelligent mixed-signal, RF/mm-wave, and microwave photonics systems, which exploit machine learning and AI techniques in three focused application areas — advanced wireless communication, sensing, and computation. With a focused theme on wireless communication, the workshop will explore machine learning and AI techniques exploited for RF signal conditioning, dynamic wireless spectrum collaboration, wireless power amplifier linearization, and massive MIMO mm-wave phased array beamforming. With a focus on sensing and imaging applications, the workshop will present machine learning based radar signal processing techniques for autonomous navigation and their implementations with integrated frequency modulated continuous wave (FMCW) radar systems. The unique advantages in using neural networks in super-resolution radar signal processing will also be discussed in comparison to classical approaches such as maximum likelihood estimation. With a focus on computation, the workshop will culminate mixed-signal, RF/mm-wave, and microwave photonics circuit techniques to accelerate energy-efficient multi-dimensional signal processing for machine learning and AI algorithms. In addition, this workshop will discuss several applications of photonic deep learning hardware accelerators in wireless communication such as RF fingerprinting. The emphasis of the workshop will be given to the design considerations and the interaction between underlying hardware system architectures and signal processing algorithms for advancing the capability of classical systems by leveraging machine learning and AI techniques.
Advances in mm-wave CMOS technology have resulted in fully integrated mm-wave radar sensors that offer a cost-effective and robust solution to automotive safety, provide accurate industrial sensing and enable gesture recognition. This workshop will feature technical experts from both academia and industry to present the state-of-the-art in mm-wave CMOS technology such as all-digital architectures, higher carrier frequencies, advanced signal processing and machine learning. These technologies promise to improve the achievable accuracy and push performance levels further. Speakers will also share their view of the next steps in this space and the possibilities for the future.
Quantum computing has recently spurred intense research activity towards the development of the cryogenic electronics to control quantum devices operating at cryogenic temperatures. Furthermore, several applications beyond quantum computing require cryogenic electronics either to be compatible with very low ambient temperatures or to outperform the performance of their room-temperature counterparts. This workshop will present an overview of cryogenic electronics from applications down to device operation, focusing on integrated circuits. First, typical applications requiring operation at cryogenic temperatures, such as quantum computing (first talk) and particle physics (second talk), will be presented to highlight requirements, current limitations, and future perspectives. Next, the operation of SiGe (third talk) and CMOS (fourth talk) at cryogenic temperatures will be discussed. Finally, four design examples of integrated circuits employing SiGe, bulk CMOS and FD-SOI CMOS and targeting low-noise amplification or quantum computing will be shown, thus practically demonstrating techniques to exploit (or circumvent) cryogenic operation.
LNA, PA, SW, phase shifter can all be integrated into 1 silicon RF Front-End (RFFE) IC for mm-wave 5G, and even multichannel integration are likely; however, the advantages in costs, robustness, manufacturability for the all-silicon RFFE IC approach not yet clear vs. hybrid III-V/silicon solutions for 5G. The power efficiency of mm-wave 5G broadband PA is considerably lower than their 4G counterparts, and GaN/GaAs III-V based PAs have high output power and good efficiency vs. those of silicon-based PAs, but hybrid integration approaches increase rapidly in cost as complexity increases, as will be covered in this workshop. mm-Wave PA linearity vs. PAE (power-added-efficiency) at power backoff is always a design trade-off, and novel RF linearization techniques are required to improve these 5G mm-wave PAs. All-silicon solutions with superstrates for antennas are currently being investigated, and we will discuss the PA-Antenna and PA-Package co-design for 5G MIMO PAs as well.
The tutorial-style workshop by top phased array experts in academia and industry will provide an in-depth learning experience for the attendees and walk them through the different aspects of mm-wave phased-array transceiver design. The workshop will feature leading experts from academia and industry and cover the following topics on mm-wave phased arrays: (1) silicon-based mm-wave phased array basics, (2) phase and gain control circuits, (3) package, antenna and module co-design and calibration, (5) phased array measurements: on-chip and over-the-air, (5) applications of phased arrays in commercial and defense systems, and (6) current 5G NR phased array systems, limitations, and an outlook towards 6G.
5G communications in the sub-6GHz frequencies offer enhanced data rates, capacity, and flexibility but face challenges such as energy efficiency, linearity, integration, and scalability. To increase battery life, optimization of the efficiency of the power amplifier is of utmost importance. This workshop investigates digitally intensive transmit architectures and pre-distortion techniques that enhance efficiency of transmitters and power amplifiers used in these next-generation wireless systems. Experts from industry and academia will share their latest research on linearization techniques to build highly efficient linear PAs in various technologies employing topologies such as Doherty, out-phasing or polar. Circuit topologies and digital signal processing algorithms for pre-distortion of these power amplifiers will also be covered in this workshop.
Want to understand the “Go” in GoGo Wireless In-flight Satellite Internet? Interested in learning about satellite orbits, CubeSats and its demands on RF electronics? Need to design on CMOS using a high-reliability PDK or next generation rad-hard process? This vertically oriented workshop provides technical know-how from the satellite to the device by bringing together commercial and defense leaders in space hardware. A review of satellite orbits and the demands on the antenna system as well as a detailed overview of CubeSats and the drive for small-form factor, high reliability electronics is covered. This is followed by a comprehensive review of the market and challenges for SatCom terminals and the need for high reliability electronics. The workshop will then cover RFICs for space in both CMOS and III-V technology including a special overview of advanced very low power CMOS for deep space sensors. Finally, a technical review of radiation types, effects on CMOS, and the techniques to successfully design in space using a radiation hard library or a next generation radiation hard process on advanced bulk CMOS is offered. This is a great place for new and experienced engineers to learn about the adventure of space.
Wireless systems using higher (100–300GHz) mm-wave carrier frequencies will benefit from large available bandwidths and, given the very short wavelengths, massive spectral re-use via massive spatial multiplexing. Simple radio link budget analysis suggests that ~1Tb/s capacities are feasible in both point-multipoint network hub and point-point backhaul links. But, range is limited by high Friss path loss and high foul-weather attenuation, and beams are readily blocked. We will examine the design, the technical challenges, and the potential design of such systems, including link architecture, link budgets, radio propagation characteristics, array tile module and antenna design, MIMO channel estimation, massive MIMO beamformer dynamic range analysis, digital beamformer design, design of mesh networks to accommodate beam blockage, RF front-end design in CMOS, SiGe and III-V technologies, and estimates of system DC power consumption as a function of architecture.
Indoor positioning and localization will be the big wave in next generation IoT. It is a process of obtaining the location of a device or a user in an indoor environment, which is a key technology enabling various IoT applications, e.g., smart building, distance-bounded security, smart industrial, etc. In this workshop, several popular smartphone based wireless technologies that are used for localizing people or objects will be discussed. Currently Bluetooth Low Energy (BLE), Ultra-WideBand (UWB) and WiFi are three popular standard compliant localization approaches. BLE is the most widely adopted smartphone based wireless protocol, so BLE-based localization has the advantage in densely deployed infrastructure. UWB is an emerging wireless localization technology, and it is now also used in future smartphones (e.g., iphone 11). The new UWB protocol IEEE802.15.4z can provide cm-level accuracy thanks to it wide spectrum. Finally, WiFi, as a wireless technology deployed in most of the buildings, will also play an important role in accurate positioning with the upcoming IEEE 802.11az protocol. Finally, the anchor-less indoor localization using radar will also be covered in this workshop.
In emerging 5G cellular communication and other mm-wave systems, the generation, distribution, and synchronization of the local oscillator (LO) signals remain a challenge. This workshop covers the latest design techniques of frequency synthesis circuit components and systems to generate LO signals with low phase noise, low spurious tones, wide modulation bandwidth, and long term stability across a wide operation frequency range. The first talk address LO frequency synthesis and voltage-controlled oscillator (VCO) coupling mitigation in the advanced 5G cellular transceiver. The second talk focuses on ultra-wide-tuning-range VCO design for mm-wave and sub-THz frequencies. The third talk explores state-of-the-art phase locked loops (PLLs) for frequency-modulated continuous wave (FMCW) generation. And the last talk introduces a new low cost reference clock generation method, molecular clock, for wireless network synchronization and navigation.
The rationale for the 5th generation of mobile communications (5G) development is to expand the broadband capability of mobile networks, and to provide capabilities not only for consumers but also for other sectors of the economy in particular vertical industries at large such as manufacturing. 5G is built to address three essential types of communication: extreme mobile broadband (eMBB), massive machine type communication (mMTC), and ultra-reliable low-latency communications (URLLC). The first type, enhanced mobile broadband (eMBB) is meant to provide both extreme high data-rate (several Gbps) and low latency communications (several ms) also to offer enhanced coverage, well beyond that provided by 4G. mMTC is designed to provide wide area coverage and deep penetration for hundreds of thousands of sensor devices per square kilometer of coverage. mMTC is also designed to provide ubiquitous connectivity with low software and hardware complexity for a device and battery-saving low-energy operation. The third category URLLC, which is also called Critical MTC, wherein monitoring and control occur in real time, E2E latency requirements are very low (at millisecond levels), and the need for reliability is high, e.g., down to 10E-5 and lower. The objective of URLLC is, among others, to provide communication to industrial process control and sensor networking that have stringent requirements in terms of reliability and low latency at the application layer. In this half-day workshop we focus on URLLC, particularly Latency and Reliability for URLLC. 5G will ensure that URLLC will have the capability to achieve a latency over the 5G radio interface of e.g. 1 ms with a reliability of 1-10E-5 meaning that a small packet can be transferred over the radio interface, where the successful transmission can be guaranteed with a failure probability of 10E-5 within a specified time bound e.g. 1ms. Low latency communication is enabled by introducing short transmission slots, allowing faster uplink and downlink transmission. By reducing the transmission duration and interval, both the time over the air and the delay introduced at the transmitter while waiting for the next transmission opportunity are reduced. Reliability can be achieved by e.g. using robust modulation and coding schemes (MCS), and diversity/redundancy techniques. Known channel coding schemes are used (such as Turbo codes or low-density-parity-check (LDPC) codes for data channels; and tail-biting convolutional or Reed-Müller codes or Polar codes for control channels, respectively). Redundancy can be provided by various means among e.g. multi-antenna, frequency or time diversity. Multi-connectivity via multi-carrier or multiple transmission points comes as a further diversity technique extending, where the device is connected via multiple frequency carriers to the radio network. Several flavors of multi-connectivity have been defined in 3GPP. While these features previously focused on improving the user throughput, by aggregating resources of the different used carriers, the focus has shifted recently to improve the transmission reliability. We describe use cases, frequency spectrum situation, technologies including measurement challenges for the 5G area of Industry 4.0 for IIoT, factory automation and smart manufacturing. Distinguished speakers from leading companies and 5G standartization discuss several aspects of 5G wireless infrastructure.
Recently, major advances in analog front-ends for ultra-high speed wireless communication systems targeting data rates towards 100Gbps have been demonstrated at high frequencies between 100 and 300GHz. In order to deliver this performance in a complete system to the end-user, they need to be integrated with very high bandwidth baseband components, analog-to-digital converters and high-speed digital signal processors. Substantial challenges need to be addressed, most notably high relative and absolute bandwidth, high frequencies at technological limits as well as low efficiency in terms of power consumption and system size. Consequently, reconsidering central system architecture decisions from a holistic perspective can be beneficial to achieve efficient implementations. Enabling technologies will be covered, including front-end designs in different frequency ranges (75–300GHz), technologies (SiGe, InP, CMOS), with antenna to baseband integration, phased array / MIMO, synchronous sampling receivers / ADCs as well as efficient real-time basebands.
The amount of new radar based 3D sensing applications at mm-wave frequencies is continuously growing. The radar sensors are used extensively almost everywhere to make the daily life more comfortable and safe. Driven by the demand for module size reduction, the operating frequencies of the radar modules keep on increasing, as one can integrate antennas in package or on chip and reduce the module size. The achievable compact module size, low DC power consumption and affordable price open up numerous opportunities for radar sensors to be employed in a whole new range of applications. Thus, there is a growing interest in using radar sensors beyond the classical applications, e.g. automotive radar or door openers. Recent advances in modulation techniques and radar signal processing techniques in combination with MIMO radar arrays, enable achieving very high spatial resolution for three-dimensional (3D) radar imaging. Hence, radar has become also a viable option for such emerging applications as wearable devices, robot-assisted surgery and many others. In this full-day workshop distinguished speakers from leading companies and academia will present the latest advances on a wide range of topics spanning from chip design, advanced system architectures and modulation techniques for emerging (non-automotive) radar applications, such as industrial, healthcare, UaV detection, smart presence detection and indoor people monitoring. The novel system architectures addressed in this workshop include e.g. reconfigurable transmitters towards software-defined radar, reconfigurable system on chip with power duty cycling using a finite state machine, radar interference detection and mitigation techniques, achieving high spatial resolution using a single radar sensor using delay lines and another using MIMO radar in combination with chirp modulation and frequency-division multiplexing. Additionally, physical implementation aspects are addressed by comparison of SOI CMOS versus SiGe technology for mm-wave radar realizations. Finally, design aspects of integrated antennas on-chip for radar applications is discussed. A brief concluding discussion will round-off the workshop to summarize the key learnings on the wide range of aspects presented during the day.
Emerging RF technologies for 5G, such as MIMO, scaled phased arrays, and mm-wave transceivers, have reached a significant level of maturity enabling initial product deployments and standards completion. While RF-specific challenges remain, significant wireless R&D efforts around the world are now integrating the new RF capabilities into end-to-end wireless networking platforms and application demonstrations. Such testbeds and application proofs-of-concept (PoC) are key to accelerate the commercial deployment of 5G, augment its impact and value, and ultimately ignite the vision for what 6G may become. This workshop will present a comprehensive overview of multi-disciplinary efforts in the areas of advanced end-to-end platforms for wireless research, emerging 5G trials, and testbeds for new radio concepts. Common themes in the workshop are (1) the enablement and execution of real-world wireless experimentation and (2) projects where emerging RF hardware capabilities (such those provided by multi-antenna mm-wave systems) are a main differentiator. The expert speakers will present diverse perspectives on these topics including: university-led research, industry-lead research, government-academia collaborations, and deployments led by telecommunication equipment providers. The audience will gain a broad understanding of the challenges associated with incorporating RF hardware into these testbeds and performance results from platform-scale experimentation. Last, but not least, a common thread of discussion throughout the workshop, and particularly at the concluding panel, will be an initial set of requirements, concepts, and implementation challenges for 6G networks.
Wireless Power Transmission (WPT) has gained a lot of attention over the past decade, and various applications have been proposed, from low-power IoT device non-directive powering to beaming mm-waves for propulsion. The goal of this workshop is to present a critical review of WPT applications, from very low-power to high-power ones, using kHz to GHz frequencies. Near-field inductive and capacitive power transfer in the kHz and low MHz ISM bands will be first overviewed and then compared in the context of kW-level power for both stationary and in-motion electric vehicles. Power transfer for implants will be discussed, and near-field compared to mid-field. Directive beaming for Space Solar Satellites will be overviewed in the context of existing demonstrations, and roadblocks to real systems presented. Finally, non-directive far-field low-power Simultaneous Wireless Information and Power Transfer (SWIPT) will be addressed as a way to make 5G – Massive IoT a reality. The 5G – Massive Internet-of-Things (MIoT) vision calls for thousands of interconnected devices using a multitude of sensors to provide useful information. As a result, mechanical and electrical properties become important, such as conformal profile, compact size, flexibility, stretchability, or even biodegradable properties. The combination of wireless power transmission and information can be the solution to address the needs of Massive IoT, due to the simplicity of the circuit and the ability to minimize the usage of batteries or even completely eliminate them.
With the deployment of sub-6GHz 5G, a strong interest for power-efficient broadband amplifiers has emerged. Multiple-input PAs such as (1) outphasing power amplifiers (OPA) operating in the Doherty-Chireix continuum, and (2) load-modulated balanced amplifiers (LMBA) appear to provide promising opportunities. This workshop will focus on the new types of calibrated testbeds, test equipment and associated control and measurement techniques which have been developed for their characterization, optimization and linearization. The characterization of multi-input power amplifiers introduces new challenges. The different RF sources need to be phase locked if they do not share the same local oscillator (LO). The modulation needs to be time synchronized. The testbed itself needs to be calibrated at its test ports for (1) power, (2) LO phase and (3) group delay. The measurements also need to consider reflections since multi-input PAs are exhibiting dynamically varying input impedances. New types of test solutions are emerging to facilitate the characterization and linearization of multi-input PAs including: the use of multiport VNAs operated as multi-channel VSAs, the synchronization of modular instruments or the use of BIST (built-in self-test) combined with machine learning. In support of the workshop theme, two talks will also feature a review of the theory of multiple-input PAs such as OPA and LMBA to establish the drive requirements, and one talk will address the linearization of multi-input PAs. Emphasis throughout the workshop will be placed on describing the various testbeds developed, their calibration, and their use for the characterization, optimization and linearization of multi-input power amplifiers.
Innovations in material science are crucial for the ongoing development of faster, high-throughput wireless communications at microwave and mm-wave frequencies. As communications systems advance into the mm-wave regime, low-loss materials are needed for fast, efficient, on-chip signal transmission. High-mobility materials are required for energy-efficient transducers that enable small-cell-based platforms. New measurement methods and material testbeds are needed to understand nonlinearity and intermodulation. Tunable materials are required for beam-forming applications and other reconfigurable systems. Materials-by-design approaches to advanced materials offer the enticing possibility of engineering optimal property-performance material relationships to meet these needs. Materials-by-design approaches can be applied across a wide variety of relevant systems, including ferrite ceramics, tunable oxides, perovskites, and novel nanomaterials. In the context of developing devices for wireless communications, materials-by-design can serve as the foundation of a multifaceted approach that includes materials engineering, materials and device modeling, measurements, and ultimate incorporation of material building blocks into microwave and mm-wave systems. This workshop will bring together researchers in all facets of this approach in the context of microwave and mm-wave communications, serving as a bridge between what are sometimes disparate communities. Researchers in materials synthesis will contribute insight about materials design and optimization. Specifically, they will show how current state-of-the art, first-principles calculations can now be used to accurately predict yet-to-be-synthesized compounds with superior, application-specific functionalities. From there, experts in microwave and mm-wave modeling will show how devices based on new materials can be designed and validated with computational and analytical approaches. For example, tunable metal oxides provide a rich testbed that illustrates how ab initio, multi-physics modeling can enable design and validation with novel material systems by quantifying fundamental, frequency-dependent properties such as conductivity, permittivity, and permeability. Transitioning from numerical and analytical modeling to practical measurements, microwave and mm-wave metrologists will describe methods for characterization of materials, both as free-standing systems and as integrated building blocks within devices. In one case, nonlinear, on-chip measurements of thin films will serve to illustrate how measurements can enable optimized performance in communications devices. In another case, microwave microscopy will be introduced as a tool for local microwave characterization of materials with nanoscale spatial resolution. Finally, device and systems engineers will bring these aspects together to illustrate the ultimate incorporation of novel materials into practical wireless communications devices. Practical applications that will be covered in this workshop include reconfigurable mm-wave antennas, non-reciprocal devices based on magnetic heterostructures, and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) filters.
The workshop will discuss the advanced microwave and mm-wave techniques and technologies for 5G wireless communication applications. These include system and transceiver architectures including software-defined phased array radio, recent advances and different techniques and technologies in designing power amplifiers, switches, low-noise amplifiers and filters in both sub-6GHz and mm-wave 5G frequency bandwidths. This workshop brings together the experts of both bulk CMOS, SOI CMOS, GaN HEMT and other technologies to explain the advantages and proper choice of certain technology to design different active and passive components of 5G front-ends and transceivers. Specifically, efficient transmitter design using advanced Doherty techniques for base station and sub-6GHz front-end modules using envelope-tracking techniques for handset applications will be discussed.
In this lecture, we will discuss the nature and properties of oscillators and the general behavior of the phase noise. We then investigate methods to model the phase noise in oscillators and the resultant design insights. In particular, we develop a time-varying model of noise in oscillators based on the impulse sensitivity function (ISF). We will use this model to describe some important phenomena such as up-conversion of 1/f noise, the effect of cyclostationary noise source, and the impact of correlated noise and their associated design implications. We will look at the newly developed generalization of the approach to model oscillator injection locking and puling and finally we will look at several designs examples of oscillators.
Microwave filters are one of the basic building blocks in RF systems along with amplifiers, mixers and oscillators. At some point, you may be called on to design or specify a filter, even though you are not a filter design expert. Luckily, there is simple design method for narrow band filters that is easy to learn and quite universal. It can be applied to any lumped element or distributed topology and any manufacturing technology except SAW-BAW, and, the method is valid for bandwidths from a fraction of a percent up to 20 percent or more. This technical lecture is a “no math” approach to filter design that requires only simple algebra and no knowledge of complex filter synthesis techniques. The root of the design flow is based on Dishal’s method with the addition of EM simulation for accuracy and port tuning for updates to the filter geometry. The basic design method can also be expanded to include cross-coupled filters and multiplexers. Two design flow examples have been prepared for this technical lecture. The first is a high Q cavity combline bandpass filter and the second is a microstrip combline bandpass filter. Example project files will be made available to attendees.
Quantum computing is moving from a long running research interest in the physics community to a field promising significant impact to society. The process of transitioning from a research prototype to scalable, fault tolerant computing systems will provide numerous opportunities for engagement from the RF and microwave design community. This talk will provide an introduction to quantum computing with a focus on superconducting transmon qubit architectures that is accessible to microwave engineers. This will include a description of the basic principles of quantum computing and the most important commercial applications. Then we will cover the transmon qubit and how the basic operational requirements are all achieved via analog RF circuits. Finally, we will cover the basics of how fault tolerance is achieved in a fundamentally analog system and what challenges are needed to build such a system along with a picture of what a fault tolerant computer might look like.
One of the most important RF circuits to emerge in the past decade is the N-path passive mixer (sometimes called the “N-path filter”). Although known for decades, the advent of deep-submicron CMOS has enabled N-path passive mixers and filters to be scaled to GHz frequencies, providing dramatic enhancements in RF receiver linearity, and enabling various other interesting capabilities. This lecture will introduce the N-path passive mixer and its application to frequency flexible, interference tolerant receivers, as well as a variety of other applications. The lecture will then provide an intuitive frame work for analyzing, designing and optimizing N-path circuits. This framework will also be used to describe ways in which circuit and transistor properties limit N-path mixers’ performance, specifically with regard to frequency of operation, power consumption, noise, and linearity. Second-order phenomena, such as phase noise and LO leakage will also be discussed, as well as techniques for their mitigation. The lecture will also suggest a design methodology for such circuits, with several worked examples, and will finish with several extensions of the core circuit to multi-port applications, such as beamforming, and non-reciprocal circuits.
Phased arrays have been the linchpin technology behind 5G wireless networks, LEO & MEO broadband high-speed internet connectivity and to some extend autonomous vehicles, in addition to many more conventional defense and security applications. Their main appeal stems from their ability to form directive (high gain) electronically scanned beams with controlled side-lobes, while maintaining smaller form factors than perhaps any other directive antenna e.g. reflectors. This technical lecture offers a top-down introduction into phased arrays, that includes the main operation principles and key analysis and design methodologies. Participants will learn to critically evaluate the system-level performance of phased array systems, and the various antenna elements and array arrangements.
This technical lecture will introduce fundamental automotive radar performance parameters, review latest market trends and functional requirements, and discuss the latest signaling waveforms and practical system implementation aspects. It will also introduce IC technology options for next-generation car-radar products, discuss key circuits and present measurement results of a fully-integrated radar front-end in 40nm CMOS silicon technology and review experiments using the CMOS chip in several prototype radars. Finally, it will discuss typical antenna implementations, radar link budget considerations, and multiple cascaded chips usage for high angular resolution imaging radars.
The workshop objective is to gather together knowledge and internationally recognized scientists developing minimally or non-invasive research aimed for biomedical applications. With this workshop, we propose to favor exchanges and promote current technologies based on electromagnetic waves or electric fields for therapeutic treatments or diagnostic. Indeed, the application of electric fields with microseconds and milliseconds and amplitudes of the order of hundreds of kV/m has been used to achieve electroporation or electropermeabilization i.e. the opening of nanometer-size pathways or “pores” across cell membrane. By inserting anti-cancer molecules inside the cells, electrochemotherapy was clinically applied using electrodes in contact for example in the treatment of skin cutaneous and subcutaneous metastases. To reach internal biological targets of the cell such as mitochondria, pulsed electric fields (nsPEF) with nanosecond, picosecond durations and Megavolt/meter intensities have been used. These fields open up prospects for innovative cancer therapies such as those resulting in apoptosis cell death and the possibility to modulate the effects or target specific cellular components. Minimally or non-invasive technologies implies challenging state-of-the-art developments. The coupling of electromagnetic waves with biological cells, tissues with no direct contact relies mainly on weak radiated fields i.e. the principle of an antenna. The main challenges here is to balance the intensity levels by developing generators and/or delivery systems capable to induce electric fields of sufficient intensities to cause local effects on the cells (electroporation). Radiofrequency or microwaves have been applied in the context of cancer treatment therapies particularly hyperthermia and thermal ablation. Recently, potentially new therapeutic means of cancer treatment with electromagnetically-induced heating from continuous and pulsed-wave amplitude-modulated mm-waves have been investigated. Continuous-wave (CW) sinusoidal signals in the MHz range have been also applied for electroporation investigations recently. The findings with these researches are strongly supported by correlations with experimental imaging technologies and numerical modeling and simulations. During this workshop, developments will be presented on subnanosecond or nanosecond pulse generators and delivery systems, thermal mm-wave pulses, temperature and electric fields assessments, numerical modeling at the cell level, innovative characterization techniques under for example, “in vitro” investigations and deep body stimulation. The workshop will end with a panel discussion to debate various contents and to enhance exchanges between the scientists (speakers, attendees, chairs).
With the amazing growth of THz technologies, a solid-state approach has been pushed forward to contribute to filling of the THz gap. The workshop aims to provide a deep overview of the recent features of mm-wave/THz active devices and circuits regarding: (i) signal generation (oscillator architecture, harmonic generation, on chip harmonic combination, phase management), (ii) amplification (medium-power/high-power amplifiers, low noise amplifiers architectures, performance) (iii) noise performance of single devices/circuit. Targeting the complete characterization of such advanced technologies, the workshop aims also to focus on advances of characterization methods for solid-state silicon/III-V active devices and noise sources at room temperature up to the sub-THz/THz range. They will include power measurements, linearity as well as common/new noise measurement techniques to accurately extract device and circuit performance up to mm-wave and THz range. This full day workshop aims as well to highlight state-of-the-art performance for a broad range of cutting-edge mm-wave/THz (0.1–1THz) technologies such Si (CMOS/BiCMOS) and III-V (GaAs, InP, GaN). In detail, the noise properties and amplification process of III-V (InP and metamorphic HEMT) and Silicon (CMOS and SiGe HBT) transistors at THz Frequencies will be discussed. Theoretical considerations about how to optimize a technology for low-noise performance and LNA examples in the mm-wave and sub-mm-wave frequency range will be given, as well as PA and TRX applications in the higher mm-wave frequency range. Signal generation (power, efficiency, phase noise) will be covered using several technologies: III-V, Si CMOS THz oscillators, as an enabler for the development of systems in the 0.1 to 1THz frequency range with system waveguide blocks or single-chip THz products for communication, imaging, radiometer, sensing and radar. Last, with the pulling of high frequency applications, packaging and integration approaches as well as system-level example of enabled applications will be discussed. High-data rate communications for future wireless backhauls is now envisaged in the D-band (110–170GHz) as well as in the H-band (around 300GHz). With the mm-wave and sub-mm-wave technologies, these systems can now target 100Gbps, with link budgets that are now close to be completed with several technologies up to the km-range. Other scenarios of THz applications on space (Inter-satellite links, CubeSat) with high performance/compactness as well as at chip-scale with low cost will drive future developments and roadmaps.
Space based solar power is receiving a resurgence of interest from a number of government and international corporations. Because the solar power satellite (SPS) concept provides 24/7 carbon free, constant load power needed for future power grids, research groups around the world are examining the different system and technology components required for this source of clean energy. Many advancements in microwave technology and system architectures have occurred since the early 2000s, and this workshop brings together key international speakers to discuss their achievements. Microwave technology related topics include electronically steerable transmitters, retrodirective beam control systems, and rectennas. The goal of this workshop is to provide an up to date assessment of the SPS system and provide microwave engineers with information on how microwave technology is used within the SPS power beaming subsystems.
There are two perspectives in dealing with beamforming in massive MIMO. The IEEE-ComSoc community has been used to perform the entire MIMO Signal Processing, including the beamforming one, in the Digital Domain, without much consideration of hardware-implementation challenges. This would require appreciable computational capacity at both base stations and mobile units if it were transferred to Massive MIMO in the mm-wave New Radio, where hundreds and maybe thousands of antennas are involved. Following such a “Fully Digital Solution” perspective necessitates that each of the array elements must have its own RF front-end. The IEEE-MTTS community, on the other hand, must be in some doubt about the costs of providing such a huge amount of RF front-ends, with PA/LNA, Up/Down Converting Mixers, DA/AD Converters, Filters, etc. backing each individual array element of a Massive-MIMO antenna array. A major cost factor in this scenario is the heat generation by the PAs and the proximity of the LNAs, whose noise performance strongly depends on the ambient temperature. Despite the fact that oversized fully digital phased arrays have been developed for military purposes, the built-in heatsinking mechanisms are very costly and might not be suitable for commercial purposes. Splitting down the large array into separate medium-size arrays is one of the scenarios recently implemented. However, the directivity of such separate arrays is much lower than that of the large one. Therefore, they are not capable of generating beams as narrow as those generated by the composite array. Multiple beam operations considerably benefit from narrow beams (higher bundling of the power, lower interference between neighboring beams, etc.). The alternative, which is called “Hybrid Solution”, is to use Subarrays, with a single RF front-end per Subarray. Steerable Multiple Beams would need in this case Butler Matrices and/or Rotman Lenses with multiple Couplers and Phase Shifters for each Subarray. The geometry and topology of the Subarrays are also crucial parameters for avoiding the generation of Gratings Lobes with the associated ambiguity. A comparison between these two alternatives in terms of Hardware/Software complexity, power consumption in both the RF front-end and the Digital Signal Processing, Linearity and Efficiency of PAs, Signal Distortion, etc. is one of the main aspects of this workshop. Another aspect to be covered by the workshop is to identify meaningful beamforming architectures from both implementation-feasibility and information-theory perspectives. In particular, optimal architectures can sacrifice a small amount of traffic capacity in favor of significant reduction of implementation complexity. The related analog-digital balance must be in line with the network deployment strategies of MNOs. This workshop is the first IMS forum, which will cover this rapidly evolving topic. The presenters are well known experts in the technical areas emphasized by the workshop. The post-presentation discussions and mutual interaction between speakers and audience will lead to a comprehensive review of the current state-of-the-art, the existing challenges, and the future outlook of this very promising area.
Microwave magnetic materials and devices provide a rich range of functions and capabilities that cannot be achieved with traditional microwave electronic devices. Magnetic devices provide opportunities for non-reciprocal behavior, frequency-dependent non-linear responses, and size reduction for high-frequency components. If current materials and device challenges are overcome, these unique devices are expected to enable future system capabilities such as full-duplex operation, improved adaptability, and reduced size weight and power. There are many magnetic material and device effects that provide unique performance to complement the excellent performance provided by modern microelectronics. Physical effects that may be exploited for unique device functionality include magnetostriction, magnetoelasticity, spin-waves, ferromagnetism, and piezomagnetism. These and other effects such as piezoelectricity or electromagnetic traveling waves have been combined to enable novel device and component performance by using either multiple materials or a single multiferroic material. This workshop will provide an up-to-date perspective on magnetic materials and devices, while also providing a background on this technology for individuals who are not experts in these devices. Academic and industry speakers will cover a broad range of topics in magnetic materials for realizing RF/microwave devices including integrated ferrite-core microinductors, magnetic tags, tunable filters, tunable and steerable antennas, phase shifters, frequency-selective limiters, auto-tune filters, non-reciprocal devices, and quasi-optical faraday rotators. The speakers will cover diverse material synthesis and integration approaches, including electrodeposition, additive manufacturing, roll-to-roll processing, and bulk materials growth. These approaches have been used to realize magnetic materials and devices ranging from the nanoscale to the macro-scale, with operating bands ranging from VHF to mm-wave frequencies. In some cases, these materials and devices have been integrated monolithically onto silicon CMOS electronics, onto printed circuit boards and other passive components, and into flexible membranes. Speakers will also cover the physics and modeling of these devices, covering the unique properties of the various magnetic materials. This should provide participants with a theoretical basis and understanding that can be applied to other new novel device concepts. The workshop will begin with academic presentations that will provide a good background and overview of the technologies while also covering new developments in the field. Later presentations will focus on the realization and commercialization of devices using these magnetic materials and technologies. These magnetic materials and devices will enable future microwave components and systems to support 5G and other initiatives that require miniature, high-performance device technology.
GaN HEMT based technologies are gaining significant market share in the defense and infrastructure market spaces, due to attractive properties such as high output power density, intrinsic efficiency and breakdown voltage. Practitioners struggling with minimizing physical size and weight are being drawn to GaN technology to solve system problems. Market specifications are evolving to the point that in many products, GaN is no longer optional — it is mandatory. However, modern GaN devices still come with associated challenges, such as significant levels of charge trapping and reliability concerns due to easily achievable high channel temperatures. The traditional interface between technology and design is the transistor model. Some design communities are very comfortable working with empirical data such as harmonic load pull to implement GaN designs, but the increased push towards lower cost/higher integration concepts make working with empirical data time consuming and costly. Both the 5G push to mm-wave and the sub-6GHz market adoption of phased arrays, are pushing the infrastructure market towards low cost integrated solutions. The downside is long design and assembly cycle times, which drives R&D cost. To decrease cycle times, the demand for stable, fast and accurate GaN transistor models, is ever increasing. This workshop will present an overview of the current state-of-the-art in GaN modeling. The progress of the two Si2 Compact Modeling Coalition standardized GaN HEMT models (ASM and MVSG) will be presented, along with advances in the state-of-the-art in model formulation. There will also be feedback from the design community on the challenges of using and designing with the current crop of GaN models.
With IMS-2020 coming to Los Angeles, CA, an historic hub of the Aerospace and Defense (A&D) industry, also home to NASA / Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), this workshop gathers together world experts, research and industry leaders to report and discuss the latest RF/MW technology trends and developments that continue on driving innovation in this specific area, as opposed to the more widely covered 5G theme. Areas of interest discussed in this workshop span from solid-state and vacuum electron active devices, to circuit design and techniques. In particular, the following subtopics are covered: • Traveling Wave Tube amplifiers still dominate the space sector; come and learn why from two presentations dedicated to this technology • depletion mode AlGaN/GaN HEMT devices have become ubiquitous in several RF/MW systems, but qualification criteria for reliable spaceborne applications is still an active debate; the latest qualification criteria will be presented by the Aerospace Corporation • an overview of InP, GaAs and GaN technology from a commercial foundry perspective • latest RF/MW technology for SmallSat and radar remote sensing presented by JPL and radar and radiometer payloads for Earth observations presented by Airbus • solid-state device and circuit techniques for high-power dish-antenna radars, and an overview of high-power RF pallets for radar systems • broadband high-power GaN MMIC amplifier design • RF/microwave technology for beamforming in phased-array systems, including a look at multi-channel technologies that have emerged from communications developments • on the education front, an effort from MIT-LL to attract young students and engineers to the electromagnetic (EM) engineering field with hands-on learning through “build-your-own-radar“ course work. This full-day workshop is geared towards practitioners in the RF/MW aerospace and defense industry who want to gain a broader perspective on the latest trends and developments as well as nuances specific to each different application. Novices and newcomers to the A&D industry will also gain a comprehensive exposure and understanding of the RF/MW landscape that drives innovation in this specific arena.
The development of 5G systems promises paradigm-shifting applications while presenting unique challenges across materials, devices, modules, and systems. One area that calls for innovative solutions to support the 5G growth is the front-end acoustic filtering at sub-6GHz and beyond. To this end, this workshop features a group of international experts who will present upcoming solutions from the industry as well as innovative approaches from academia. The workshop will first highlight system-level considerations and then delve into new materials and enabling device design/modeling techniques before comprehensive solutions that require co-designing devices, circuits, integration, and packaging are discussed. A panel discussion will conclude the workshop with insights and outlooks for the trending acoustic technology candidates as well as the long-term prospects of acoustic devices in RF front-ends.
In this technical lecture, you will learn key aspects of silicon-based mm-wave phased-array design and characterization. The lecture will cover the following topics: (1) Fundamentals of phased arrays -- theory and intuition, (2) Silicon-based mm-wave phased array architectures, (3) Silicon-based circuit building blocks for phased array systems, (4) Package, antenna and module design and simulation, (5) phased array measurements, (6) phased array system considerations. Both CMOS and SiGe technologies will be covered. The lecture will end with a peek into current research trends and future research outlook of phased array systems.